Menschenrechte

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Menschenrechte sind Rechte, die allen Menschen innewohnen, unabhängig von Rasse, Geschlecht, Nationalität, ethnischer Zugehörigkeit, Sprache, Religion oder einem anderen Status. Zu den Menschenrechten gehören das Recht auf Leben und Freiheit, die Sicherheit der Person, die Freiheit von Sklaverei und Folter, die Meinungs- und Meinungsfreiheit, das Recht auf Arbeit und Bildung und vieles mehr. Jeder hat Anspruch auf diese Rechte ohne Diskriminierung.[1]

Die Praxis der nichttherapeutischen Beschneidung, die in der Antike verwurzelt ist, wurzelt noch vor der aufgezeichneten Geschichte und wurde im 19. Jahrhundert aus angeblichen medizinischen Gründen wieder eingeführt, vor der Einleitung der Menschenrechtsära im Jahr 1945. Die Anerkennung der Menschenrechte für alle (einschließlich der Patienten) hat die medizinische Ethik und die Akzeptanz der nichttherapeutischen Beschneidung von Kindern grundlegend verändert.

Kinder besitzen im Gegensatz zu Erwachsenen zwei Arten von Menschenrechten. UNICEF sagt:

Kinder und Jugendliche haben die gleichen allgemeinen Menschenrechte wie Erwachsene und auch spezifische Rechte, die ihre besonderen Bedürfnisse anerkennen. Kinder sind weder Eigentum ihrer Eltern noch hilflose Objekte der Nächstenliebe. Sie sind Menschen und Gegenstand ihrer eigenen Rechte.[2]

Im Gegensatz zu Erwachsenen können Kinder keine Einwilligung für medizinische Behandlung, Operation oder Verletzung ihrer Menschenrechte erteilen.

Geschichte

Man kann davon ausgehen, dass die Ära der Menschenrechte mit der Gründung der Vereinten Nationen in San Francisco im Jahr 1945 begonnen hat, da die Charta der Vereinten Nationen verlangt, dass dieses Gremium die universelle Achtung und Einhaltung der Menschenrechte für alle fördert - ohne Unterscheidung nach Rasse, Geschlecht, Sprache oder Religion.[3]

Die Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen verabschiedete 1948 die Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte (UDHR), um ihren Verpflichtungen aus der Charta nachzukommen.[4] Die UDHR erkennt das Recht aller auf Sicherheit der Person (Artikel 3), auf Freiheit von unmenschlicher, grausamer oder erniedrigender Behandlung (Artikel 5) und die Rechte von Mutterschaft und Kindheit auf besonderen Schutz (Artikel 25.2) an, die alle auch für die Beschneidung gelten.

Die Generalversammlung verabschiedete 1967 den Internationalen Pakt über bürgerliche und politische Rechte (ICCPR).[5] Dieser völkerrechtliche Pakt enthält mehrere Bestimmungen, die auf die Beschneidung von Kindern angewendet werden können.

Die Generalversammlung verabschiedete 1989 (22 Jahre später) die Konvention über die Rechte des Kindes (KRK). Die KRK enthält keine bestimmten Rechte von Kindern, die bereits vom ICCPR geschützt wurden.

Anwendung des ICCPR auf die nichttherapeutische Beschneidung von Kindern

Die Artikel 1, 7, 9 und 24 gelten für die nichttherapeutische Beschneidung von Kindern durch Männer und Frauen. Jede Nation, die im Rahmen des 1976 in Kraft getretenen ICCPR Vertragsstaat ist, verpflichtet sich, diese Rechte für ihre Bürger durchzusetzen.

Artikel 1

Artikel 1 enthält teilweise:

  1. Alle Völker haben das Recht auf Selbstbestimmung: "Durch dieses Recht bestimmen sie frei ihren politischen Status und verfolgen frei ihre wirtschaftliche, soziale und kulturelle Entwicklung.

Selbstbestimmung ist das Recht, selbst zu entscheiden. Dies sieht eine Genitalautonomie vor, die das Recht ist, selbst zu entscheiden, ob die Genitalien chirurgisch verändert werden sollen. Die Genitalautonomie wird dadurch erreicht, dass eine nichttherapeutische Operation an einem Kind verzögert wird, bis das Kind volljährig ist, in dem es selbst entscheiden kann.

Artikel 7

Artikel 7 enthält:

Niemand darf gefoltert oder grausamer, unmenschlicher oder erniedrigender Behandlung oder Bestrafung ausgesetzt werden. Insbesondere darf niemand ohne seine freie Zustimmung medizinischen oder wissenschaftlichen Experimenten unterzogen werden.

Die nichttherapeutische Beschneidung von Kindern ist grausam, weil sie dem Opfer sein ganzes Leben lang die optimale sexuelle Funktion und das optimale Vergnügen nimmt. Es wird abgebaut, weil es einen Teil des Penis amputiert und ihn weniger funktionsfähig macht.

Artikel 9

Artikel 9 enthält:

Jeder hat das Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit der Person.

Sicherheit der Person ist das Recht auf körperliche Unversehrtheit. Die körperliche Unversehrtheit wird beeinträchtigt, wenn ein Teil des Penis amputiert wird. Daher verstößt die nichttherapeutische Beschneidung nicht einwilligender Kinder gegen diese Bestimmung des Völkerrechts.

Artikel 24

Artikel 24 enthält:

Jedes Kind hat ohne Diskriminierung in Bezug auf Rasse, Hautfarbe, Geschlecht, Sprache, Religion, nationale oder soziale Herkunft, Eigentum oder Geburt das Recht auf Schutzmaßnahmen, die aufgrund seines Status als Minderjähriger erforderlich sind in seiner Familie, der Gesellschaft und im Staat.

Wenn einem Kind der Schutz vor schädlicher, gewebeentfernender, nicht therapeutischer Beschneidung verweigert wird, wird dieses Recht verletzt.

(Dieser Artikel wurde noch nicht aus dem Englischen übersetzt oder enthält noch englische Textpassagen. Bitte beziehe dich vorerst auf die Informationen im englischen Artikel. Klicke im Abschnitt "In anderen Sprachen" auf "English" in der Navigationsspalte.)

Specific children's rights applicable to non-therapeutic circumcision

The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on 20 November 1989.[6] The CRC does not replace the ICCPR, which had been previously adopted by the General Assembly. The ICCPR already provides certain rights to children. The CRC adds additional rights that children need for protection due to their immaturity and vulnerability. The two documents must be read together to receive the complete picture. Unfortunately, many seem to believe that rights provided by the CRC are the only human rights of children, but that view is incorrect.

Application of the CRC to non-therapeutic circumcision of children

Artikel 2

Artikel 2 provides in part:

1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.[6]

This means that all children, male and female, and regardless of parental religious views, shall enjoy the same human rights.

Artikel 12

Artikel 12 provides:

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

This means, with application to non-therapeutic circumcision, that the child, who is capable of expressing an opinion, shall have his views considered.[6]

Artikel 14

Artikel 14 provides:

1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.[6]

This means that a child may express his or her religious views, even though those views may differ from those of his or her parents. This includes views related to male or female circumcision.

Artikel 19

Artikel 19 provides:

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.

2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.[6]

Non-therapeutic male circumcision of male children have both been shown to cause great physical harm in the loss of the foreskin and its many protective, immunological, sexual, and sensory physiological functions. We now know that male circumcision causes sexual, and mental harm to its victims. Furthermore, the sexual and mental harm of non-therapeutic male circumcision is now well documented.

States, which are parties to this Convention, have a duty to protect children from such harm.

Artikel 24

Artikel 24 has several paragraphs. Paragraph three is of special importance to male circumcision which is a traditional practice that dates back to before the advent of recorded history.[6]

Paragraph three provides:

3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children.

Male circumcision always results in the permanent and irreversible loss of the foreskin, a structure with protective, immunological, sexual, and sensory functions. The loss of the protective and immunological functions are harmful to physical health. The loss of the sensory and sexual functions are harmful to [sexual] and mental health. We have long known that non-therapeutic circumcision of children sometimes results in death. Douglas Gairdner (1949) reported circumcision caused nineteen deaths in England and Wales in 1946.[7] Bollinger (2010) estimated 117 deaths per year in the United States.[8]

In addition to possible death, bleeding, infection, and surgical misadventure that may result in various injuries, including loss of the penis are more common occurences.

The question of religious rights

Some argue that parental religious views give that parent a right to circumcise a child, however that view is not correct. Artikel 18(3) very clearly states:

Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

It is clear from the discussion above that non-therapeutic circumcision of a child is a violation of the fundamental rights and freedoms of that child.

The religious rights of the child are often overlooked. The religious rights of the child are enunciated by Artikel 18 of the ICCPR and also by the CRC Artikel 14. The right to modify or not modify one's body in accordance with one's religious views is a human right. That right belongs to the individual and no one else. A decision by a parent to circumcise a child tramples on the child's religious rights, so no decision should be taken until the child is of age to decide for himself.

Acceptance of international human rights law in the United States of America

Artikel 6 of the Constitution of the United States makes treaties part of the "supreme law of the land".

The Congress of the United States of America, therefore, historically has been protective of the sovereign rights of the United States and reluctant to surrender them by treaty. The ICCPR and the CRC are multi-lateral treaties.

The United States Senate ratified the ICCPR in 1992, but it doing so, it took an extraordinary number of reservations, understandings, and declarations. With these reservations, the ICCPR does not provide a cause for action in United States courts.[9] The effect is to render the ICCPR toothless in the United States.

Madeleine Albright, then ambassador to the United Nations, signed the CRC on behalf of the United States on 16 February 1995. The CRC, however, is at variance with United States law, so it has never been submitted to the Senate of the United States for ratification. The United States is the only country in the world that is not a state-party to the CRC, so the CRC has only moral authority in the United States.

Human Rights and non-therapeutic child circumcision

Several authorities have condemned the practice of non-therapeutic child circumcision.

Jacqueline Smith (1998) writing for the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM), concluded:

In my view, the best way to do justice to the rights of the child is to do no harm, to let it enjoy life in every aspect and to protect it against influences not asked for. Regardless of whether a child is a boy or a girl, neither should be subject to a tradition which is harmful. When the child is of consenting age, fully informed about all possibilities which lay ahead of him or her, it can make up his or her own mind and choose the way he or she thinks is best.[10]

Let the child decide

The Helsinki-Erklärung (2012) declared the right of genital autonomy, which derives from the right of every human being to security of person. Svoboda (2015) reports there now is an emerging consensus that a decision to perform a non-therapeutic circumcision should be deferred until the child is of age and can decide for himself about having an amputation of his foreskin.[11]

When this practice is followed, the child's human rights are honored and respected.

Council of Europe

The Council of Europe is an international organization of 47 European member-states whose goal is to promote human rights in Europe.

The Council of Europe adopted the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) at Rome in 1950. The Convention has been amended or extended by several "protocols" since its original adoption. The ECHR also created the European Court of Human Rights which sits at Strasbourg. The 47 member-states of the ECHR are subect to the provisions of that treaty and to the decisions of the Court.[12]

With regard to child genital cutting, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted a resolution on 1 October 2013.

Resolution 1952 called on member-states to:

7.1. examine the prevalence of different categories of non-medically justified operations and interventions impacting on the physical integrity of children in their respective countries, as well as the specific practices related to them, and to carefully consider them in light of the best interests of the child in order to define specific lines of action for each of them;

7.2. initiate focused awareness-raising measures for each of these categories of violation of the physical integrity of children, to be carried out in the specific contexts where information may best be conveyed to families, such as the medical sector (hospitals and individual practitioners), schools,religious communities or service providers;

7.3. provide specific training, including on the risks of and alternatives to certain procedures, as well as the medical reasons and minimum sanitary conditions that should be fulfilled when performing them, to various professionals involved, in particular medical and educational staff, but also, on a voluntary basis, religious representatives;

7.4. initiate a public debate, including intercultural and interreligious dialogue, aimed at reaching a large consensus on the rights of children to protection against violations of their physical integrity according to human rights standards;

7.5. take the following measures with regard to specific categories of violation of children’s physical integrity:

7.5.1. publicly condemn the most harmful practices, such as female genital mutilation, and pass legislation banning these, thus providing public authorities with the mechanisms to prevent and effectively fight these practices, including through the application of extraterritorial “legislative or other measures to establish jurisdiction” for cases where nationals are submitted to female genital mutilation abroad, as specified in Artikel 44 of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (CETS No.210);

7.5.2. clearly define the medical, sanitary and other conditions to be ensured for practices which are today widely carried out in certain religious communities, such as the non-medicallyjustified circumcision of young boys;

7.5.3. undertake further research to increase knowledge about the specific situation of intersex people, ensure that no-one is subjected to unnecessary medical or surgical treatment that is cosmetic rather than vital for health during infancy or childhood, guarantee bodily integrity, autonomy and self-determination to persons concerned, and provide families with intersex children with adequate counselling and support;

7.6. promote interdisciplinary dialogue between representatives of various professions, including medical doctors and religious representatives, so as to overcome some of the prevailing traditional methods which do not take into consideration the best interest of the child and the latest medical techniques.

7.7. raise awareness about the need to ensure the participation of children in decisions concerning their physical integrity wherever appropriate and possible, and to adopt specific legal provisions to ensure that certain operations and practices will not be carried out before a child is old enough to be consulted.[13]

Siehe auch


Video

The late Paul Mason, former Tasmanian Commissioner for Children, discusses the human rights violations inherent in non-therapeutic circumcision of children.

Weblinks

Einzelnachweise

  1. REFweb Human Rights [Menschenrechte] (English), un.org, United Nations. Abgerufen 6. Februar 2020.
  2. REFweb Child rights and why they matter [Kinderrechte und warum sie wichtig sind] (Englisch), UNICEF. Abgerufen 5. November 2019.
  3. REFdocument Charter of the United Nations Icons-mini-file acrobat.gif (PDF) [Charta der Vereinten Nationen] (Englisch). 1945. Abgerufen 4. November 2019.
  4. REFdocument Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71 (1948). Icons-mini-file acrobat.gif (PDF), United Nations. 1948. Abgerufen 4. November 2019.
  5. REFdocument International Covenant on Civil and Political Right Icons-mini-file acrobat.gif (PDF), United Nations. 1967. Abgerufen 4. November 2019.
  6. a b c d e f REFdocument Convention on the Rights of the Child Icons-mini-file acrobat.gif (PDF), United Nations. 20. November 1989. Abgerufen 6. November 2019.
  7. REFjournal Gairdner, Douglas (1949): The fate of the foreskin: a study of circumcision [Das Schicksal der Vorhaut: eine Studie über die Beschneidung] (English), in: British Medical Journal. 2 (4642): 1433-1437, PMID, PMC, DOI. Abgerufen am 28. Oktober 2019.
  8. REFjournal Bollinger, Dan / Boy's Health Advisory (26. April 2010): Lost Boys: An Estimate of U.S. Circumcision-Related Infant Deaths, in: Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies. 4 (1): 78-90, DOI. Abgerufen am 2. Februar 2020.
  9. REFdocument Ash, Kristina: U.S. Reservations to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Credibility Maximization and Global Influence, Northwestern University Journal of International Human Rights. März 2005. Abgerufen 3. Februar 2020.
  10. REFweb Smith, Jacqueline (1998). Male Circumcision and the Rights of the Child, CIRP, Netherlands Institute of Human Rights. Abgerufen 4. Februar 2020.
  11. REFjournal Svoboda, J. Steven (2015): Growing world consensus to leave circumcision decision to the affected individual, in: Am J Bioethics. 15 (2): 46-8, PMID, DOI. Abgerufen am 6. Februar 2020.
  12. REFdocument European Convention on Human Rights Icons-mini-file acrobat.gif (PDF), Council of Europe. 1950. Abgerufen 15. September 2020.
  13. REFdocument Parliamentary Assembly: Resolution 1952, in: Children’s right to physical integrity Icons-mini-file acrobat.gif (PDF), Council of Europe. 1. Oktober 2013. Abgerufen 15. September 2020.